The development of TSC generally proceeds in two ways. The first is to use extremely thin films on the nanometer scale to make transparent solar panels, which means that when you reduce the thickness of certain materials, the transparency of the material increases. In this method, multiple layers of materials are combined into a single solar cell, similar to the manufacturing process for traditional silicon-based cells. However, the overall transparency of the solar cell can be increased by using extremely thin films for each layer. There are many different processes for the fabrication of conductive films and the deposition of these films on substrates, each of which has a different impact on the overall performance and cost of a solar cell.
Another approach is to use transparent materials that naturally allow visible light to pass through while absorbing light in the ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrums, which can then be used to generate electricity. This takes advantage of the fact that buildings with glass façades often already have coatings that filter some incident light in both UV and IR frequencies to protect the occupants of the building from UV radiation and to prevent overheating by IR radiation building. Instead of throwing this energy away, this type of transparent solar cell not only captures energy at invisible wavelengths but also converts it into usable electricity.
Many more promising technologies employ a combination of these two stacking techniques because the layers used to build solar cells are very thin, which increases their transparency, and the layers are selected to also absorb NIR and/or UV radiation.